By Benjamin Crowell
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Cylinder B has twice as much energy, and yet the temperatures of both cylinders are the same. Explain, at the atomic level, what form of energy is involved, and why cylinder B has twice as much. 13 At a given temperature, the average kinetic energy per molecule is a fixed value, so for instance in air, the more massive oxygen molecules are moving more slowly on the average than the nitrogen molecules. The ratio of the masses of oxygen and nitrogen molecules is 16 to 14. Now suppose a vessel containing some air is surrounded by a vacuum, and the vessel has a tiny hole in it, which allows the air to slowly leak out.
Machines can increase force, but not work. 6). The tension in the lefthand rope is equal throughout, assuming negligible friction, so there are two forces pulling the pulley to the left, each equal to the original force exerted by the tractor on the rope. This doubled force is transmitted through the right-hand rope to the stump. g / The pulley doubles the force the tractor can exert on the stump. It might seem as though this arrangement would also double the work done by the tractor, but look again.
Although the pulley exerts double the force on the stump, the pulley and stump only move half as far, so the work done on the stump is no greater that it would have been without the pulley. The same is true for any mechanical arrangement that increases or decreases force, such as the gears on a ten-speed bike. You can’t get out more work than you put in, because that would violate conservation of energy. If you shift gears so that your force on the pedals is amplified, the result is that you just have to spin the pedals more times.