A History of Germany 1918-2008: The Divided Nation (3rd by Mary Fulbrook

By Mary Fulbrook

The 3rd variation of A heritage of Germany strains the dramatic social, cultural, and political tensions in Germany given that 1918.

- deals a persuasive interpretation of the dynamics of twentieth-century German history

- Treats German historical past from 1918-2008 from the point of view of department and reunification, protecting East and West German historical past in equivalent depth

- Covers the self-destructive Weimar Republic, the extremes of genocide and armed forces aggression within the Nazi period, the department of the country within the chilly warfare, and the cave in of communist East Germany and unification in 1990

- re-creation contains updates all through, specifically protecting the Nazi interval and the Holocaust; a brand new bankruptcy on Germany because the Nineteen Nineties; and a considerably revised and up to date bibliography

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A History of Germany 1918-2008: The Divided Nation (3rd Edition)

The 3rd variation of A heritage of Germany lines the dramatic social, cultural, and political tensions in Germany for the reason that 1918.

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- Treats German heritage from 1918-2008 from the point of view of department and reunification, overlaying East and West German heritage in equivalent depth

- Covers the self-destructive Weimar Republic, the extremes of genocide and armed forces aggression within the Nazi period, the department of the country within the chilly warfare, and the cave in of communist East Germany and unification in 1990

- new version comprises updates all through, particularly masking the Nazi interval and the Holocaust; a brand new bankruptcy on Germany because the Nineties; and a considerably revised and up-to-date bibliography

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Extra resources for A History of Germany 1918-2008: The Divided Nation (3rd Edition)

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48 By this definition planters and Junkers can be termed landed gentlemen, or gentlemen farmers, not in the sense of English landlords living off tenant rents, but in the sense that they did not have to perform declasse manual labor in the fields. The size of their estates and work forces—or perhaps the amount of supplemental income from non-agricultural employment as, say, attorneys or doctors in the South, senior army officers or bureaucrats in East Elbia49—was sufficient not only to avoid the necessity of working with their hands but also to employ intermediary personel like foremen and overseers (sometimes called Inspektoren in Prussia) to assume the dirty and unpleasant task of serving as full-time, on-the-site supervisors of work in the fields.

However, we can say definitively that where England's landowning elite comprised predominantly rentiers who let their estates to tenant farmers for rents fixed in advance, most Junkers and planters relied on the more variable and hence riskier profits derived from operating their estates as consolidated enterprises. In the second place, where English landowners sought and won tariff protection against foreign grain during the era of the Corn Laws (1815—46), most planters and Junkers were staunch free traders, 102 and relied heavily on overseas markets (the English market especially) for disposal of their commodities.

Finally, I will emphasize that the comparability of planters and Junkers does not derive from the influence of either regional society upon the other. I— The independence and prestige so esteemed by antebellum planters and contemporaneous Junkers rested fundamentally on their ownership of landed estates that were at the same time economic enterprises and political communities. Plantations and Rittergiiter raised cash crops for foreign and domestic markets; they could be readily acquired by any individual with the purchase price (after 1807 for knight's estates); and they were farmed by workers legally subordinate to the personal, autocratic authority of individual planters and Junkers.

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