A history of light and colour measurement: science in the by Sean F. Johnston

By Sean F. Johnston

Imagine that brightness of sunshine isn't any sizeable deal? reconsider. :-)

With bankruptcy titles like bankruptcy 2's "Light as a Law-Abiding Quanitity" or bankruptcy 3's "Seeing Things", this booklet has as a lot middle because it does wit.

Intelligently written, it presents an incredible counter-weight to all flights of fancy (successes--Plank's Black physique Radiation--and failures--N Rays! lol) in addition to their public conception.

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Artists, having more practical experience with the subject than most men of science, were the instigators of several systems. David Ramsay Hay (1798–1866), for example, wrote on ‘the numerical powers and proportions of colours and hues’ in 1846. His rather arbitrary numerical descriptions intermingled with the flowery language of the artist: ‘Blue. . belongs more to the principle of darkness or shade. . and is consequently the most retiring of the three. It is also of these elements the most cool and pleasing to the eye, associating, as it does, with the groundwork of the retina itself’49 .

This relationship breaks down (the subsequently termed reciprocity failure) for extremes of intensity, exposure time or wavelength. 27 Woods C R 1883 ‘On latitude of exposure’ Photog. News 27 67–8. 28 Anon. 1883 ‘Latitude of exposure’ Photog. News 27 113–14. 29 Anon. 1884 ‘The Simonoff photometer’ Photog. News 28 610. This was a device in the form of a telescope incorporating an adjustable aperture wheel and graticule with scribed letters. The appropriate aperture, calibrated in terms of intensity, was selected to make the smaller letters illegible while the telescope was pointed at the light source of interest.

Established in 1877, the Potsdam Observatory became a centre for photometric observations and produced a line of researchers26. Z¨ollner’s student, Hermann Carl Vogel (1834–98) while working at observatories in Kiel and Potsdam from 1870 undertook an extensive programme of stellar classification using spectroscopic and photographic techniques. Gustav M¨uller, in his turn, gained an interest in photometry while working as an assistant to Vogel at Potsdam. Between 1886 and 1906, he planned and carried out an extensive programme of stellar photometry.

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