By Michelson A.A.
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Additional info for A Modification of the Revolving Mirror Method for Measuring the Velocity of Light (1920)(en)(2s)
The level spacing decreases as v increases, in contrast to the even spacing of the ideal harmonic oscillator (Fig. 7). 4 A standard source is G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. Volume I, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, Robert E. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 1989. 7 The vibrational energy level spacing of a real (anharmonic) diatomic molecule decreases with increasing vibrational energy. † For a simple check on our theory, consider the two molecules hydrogen ﬂuoride (HF) and deuterium ﬂuoride (DF).
3 MOLECULAR VIBRATIONS As in the case of atoms, there are only certain allowed energy levels for the electrons of a molecule. Quantum jumps of electrons in molecules are accompanied by the emission or absorption of photons that typically belong to the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For our purposes the electronic energy levels of molecules are quite similar to those of atoms. However, in contrast with atoms, molecules have vibrational and rotational as well as electronic energy.
This quantum picture is consistent with a highly simpliﬁed description of laser action. Suppose that lasing occurs on the transition deﬁned by levels 1 and 2 of Fig. 12. In the most favorable situation the lower level (level 1) of the laser transition is empty. To maintain this situation a mechanism must exist to remove downward jumping electrons from level 1 to another level, say level 0. In this situation there can be no detrimental absorption of laser photons due to transitions upward from level 1 to level 2.