By J. C. Cooper
In approximately 1500 entries, lots of them strikingly and sometimes unusually illustrated, J. C. Cooper has documented the heritage and evolution of symbols from prehistory to our personal day.With over two hundred illustrations and full of life, informative and sometimes ironic texts, she discusses and explains a major number of symbols extending from the Arctic to Dahomey, from the Iroquois to Oceana, and coming from platforms as different as Tao, Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Tantra, the cult of Cybele and the nice Goddess, the Pre-Columbian religions of the Western Hemisphere and the Voodoo cults of Brazil and West Africa.
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The narrowband transition from 2 E to the ground state is parity and spin forbidden, whereas the broadband transition from the 4 T2 state is spin allowed . The energy gap ∆ETE between 4 T2 and 2 E levels plays an important role in making the laser transition broadband because it determines the population degree of the 4 T2 level. If the gap is negative (4 T2 lies below 2 E) or is of the order of kT at room temperature, then the emission occurs from the 4 T2 level with a lifetime of the order of tens of microseconds.
Direct diode-pumping of Ti:sapphire cannot be realized due to the lack in the foreseeable future of pump diodes, which would be able to create the necessary high pumping intensity to reach the threshold. The intrinsically high threshold of this material is connected with the large gain bandwidth and short central wavelength (15). 20 Evgeni Sorokin 2 2 6 -19 -20 Absorption (x10 3 S 2 4 V V 2 400 500 1 600 700 800 900 Wavelength (nm) 1000 Emission (x10 cm ) S cm ) 4 8 1100 Fig. 6. Absorption and emission cross sections of Ti:sapphire.
In this case, the overall width of the spectrum may become even larger than that obtained by purely inhomogeneous broadening of 40 Evgeni Sorokin one or two strongest lines, as in Nd:glass. Such conditions can be realized in Tm3+ and Yb3+ crystals, as will be shown in the next sections. The actinide rare-earth ions have partially ﬁlled 5f shells that are more exposed to the crystalline environment than 4f shells of the lanthanides. As a result, these ions demonstrate much stronger electron–phonon broadening than lanthanides.